Nelson wrecked Napoleon's military plans in Egypt , but the scholars did produce their Description. I have it before me, in a modern edition published by Taschen. What a book. Meticulous engravings depict the wonders of Egyptian archaeology: the temples of Philae, for instance, are shown in their original setting on an island in the Nile, seen from every angle in measured architectural views.
Today the temples are on another nearby island after Unesco moved them to save them from flooding caused by the Aswan Dam — so the Description's precise record of their original appearance is invaluable. It goes on like that. The French team journeyed to all the great archaeological sites of Egypt and made the first precise studies of them. This book is a monument to human curiosity and reason.
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Out of it came a new understanding of the legacy of one of the world's most charismatic civilisations. Yet the French also studied the modern Egypt of their time, the natural history of the Nile, the Islamic architecture of Cairo, even agricultural techniques and industries. One of four original copies of this great work in Egypt has been lost forever. Circumcision was practiced in Egypt at a very early date.
Strouhal mentions that "the earliest archaeological evidence for circumcision was found in the southern Nile Valley and dates from the Neolithic period, some years ago".
The remains of circumcised individuals are cited as proof. Evidence suggests that circumcision was practiced in the Arabian peninsula "from where, in the fourth millennium BCE, two groups of people migrated into what we today call Iraq. These were the Sumerians and, slightly later, the Semites , the forefathers of the Hebrews". For Diop, Ham means "heat, black, burned" in Hebrew, an etymology which became popular in the 18th century. According to Diop, the Egyptians referred to themselves as "Black" people or kmt , and km was the etymological root of other words, such as Kam or Ham, which refer to Black people in Hebrew tradition.
Mainstream scholars hold that kmt means "the black land" or "the black place", and that this is a reference to the fertile black soil which was washed down from Central Africa by the annual Nile inundation. Diop saw the representation of black people in Egyptian art and iconography throughout Egyptian history. University of Chicago scholars state that the skin pigment used in Egyptian paintings to refer to Nubians can range "from dark red to brown to black".
Professors Vercoutter, Ghallab and Leclant stated that "Egyptian iconography, from the 18th Dynasty onward, showed characteristic representations of black people who had not previously been depicted; these representations meant, therefore, that at least from that dynasty onward the Egyptians had been in contact with peoples who were considered ethnically distinct from them. Depictions of Egyptians in art and artifacts are rendered in sometimes symbolic, rather than realistic, pigments.
As a result, ancient Egyptian artifacts provide sometimes conflicting and inconclusive evidence of the ethnicity of the people who lived in Egypt during dynastic times.
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The Egyptians accurately, arrogantly and aggressively made national and ethnic distinctions from a very early date in their art and literature. This debate is best characterized by the controversy over the Great Sphinx of Giza. From this Williams concluded that "Egypt and Nubia A-Group culture shared the same official culture", "participated in the most complex dynastic developments", and " Nubia and Egypt were both part of the great East African substratum". More recent and broader studies have determined that the distinct pottery styles, differing burial practices, different grave goods and the distribution of sites all indicate that the Naqada people and the Nubian A-Group people were from different cultures.
Kathryn Bard further states that "Naqada cultural burials contain very few Nubian craft goods, which suggests that while Egyptian goods were exported to Nubia and were buried in A-Group graves, A-Group goods were of little interest further north. See also: Ancient Egyptian race controversy. Main article: Population history of Egypt. See also: DNA history of Egypt. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings.
January Main article: Km hieroglyph. Grant notes that Cleopatra probably had not a drop of Egyptian blood and "would have described herself as Greek," noting that had she been illegitimate her "numerous Roman enemies would have revealed this to the world. Goldworthy notes Cleopatra "was no more Egyptian culturally or ethnically than most residents of modern day Arizona are Apaches", that Greek was her native tongue, that it was "in Greek literature and culture she was educated," and that she wore the robes and headband of a Greek monarch.
Cleopatra: A Life. UK: Random House.
The extraordinary elevation of our Egyptian House in Penzance
Schiff writes Cleopatra was not dark-skinned, that "the Ptolemies were in fact Macedonian Greek, which makes Cleopatra approximately as Egyptian as Elizabeth Taylor ", that her Ptolemaic relatives were described as "honey skinned", that she was part Persian, and that "an Egyptian mistress is a rarity among the Ptolemies. Price , "Was Cleopatra Black? The Baltimore Sun. September 26, Feb The author cites a few examples of the claim, one of which is a chapter entitled "Black Warrior Queens," published in in Black Women in Antiquity, part of The Journal of African Civilization series, in which a principal argument in favor of the hypothesis claims that Cleopatra called herself black in the Book of Acts , when she in fact did not and had died long before the New Testament.
It draws heavily on the work of J.
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Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Ancient Civilizations of Africa. Nature Communications. The World and Africa. New York: International Publishers. Updated with publication of summary of SSIC report. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn.
A series of Department of Justice memoranda authorized torture methods that the CIA applied on detainees. German national Khaled El-Masri was seized in Macedonia because he had been mistaken for an Al Qaeda suspect with a similar name. In , then Secretary of State Colin Powell relied on this fabricated information in his speech to the United Nations that made the case for war against Iraq. Abu Zubaydah was waterboarded at least 83 times by the CIA.
Torture is prohibited in all circumstances under international law and allegations of torture must be investigated and criminally punished. Fatima Bouchar was abused by the CIA, and by persons believed to be Thai authorities, for several days in the Bangkok airport.