It also paid attention to workplace matters such as the glass ceiling , unfair maternity-leave policies,  motherhood support for single mothers by means of welfare and child care , respect for working mothers, and the rights of mothers who decide to leave their careers to raise their children full-time. One issue raised by critics was a lack of cohesion because of the absence of a single cause for third-wave feminism.
The first wave fought for and gained the right for women to vote. The second wave fought for the right for women to have access to an equal opportunity in the workforce, as well as the end of legal sex discrimination. The third wave allegedly lacked a cohesive goal and was often seen as an extension of the second wave.
Kathleen P. Iannello wrote:. Individualism conceived of as 'choice' does not empower women; it silences them and prevents feminism from becoming a political movement and addressing the real issues of distribution of resources. Feminist scholars such as Shira Tarrant objected to the "wave construct" because it ignored important progress between the periods.
Furthermore, if feminism is a global movement, she argued, the fact that the "first-, second-, and third waves time periods correspond most closely to American feminist developments" raises serious problems about how feminism fails to recognize the history of political issues around the world.
Third-wave feminists proclaim themselves as the most inclusive wave of feminism. Critics have noted that while progressive, there is still exclusion of women of color. Black feminists argue that "the women rights movements were not uniquely for the liberation of Blacks or Black Women. Rather, efforts such as women's suffrage and abolition of slavery ultimately uplifted, strengthened, and benefited White society and White women".
Third-wave feminism was often associated, primarily by its critics, with the emergence of so-called "lipstick" or "girly" feminists and the rise of "raunch culture". This was because these new feminists advocated for "expressions of femininity and female sexuality as a challenge to objectification". Accordingly, this included the dismissal of any restriction, whether deemed patriarchal or feminist, to define or control how women or girls should dress, act, or generally express themselves. Second-wave feminism viewed pornography as encouraging violence towards women. Such views were critiqued because of the subjective nature of empowerment and autonomy.
Scholars were unsure whether empowerment was best measured as an "internal feeling of power and agency" or as an external "measure of power and control". Moreover they critiqued an over-investment in "a model of free will and choice" in the marketplace of identities and ideas. Third-wave feminists said that these viewpoints should not be limited by the label "girly" feminism or regarded as simply advocating for "raunch culture".
Rather, they sought to be inclusive of the many diverse roles women fulfill.
Both caused controversy, while appearing to be opposing forms of self-expression. Through the lens of "girly" feminists, one can view both as symbolic of "political agency and resistance to objectification". The "hijab" could be seen as an act of resistance against Western ambivalence towards Islamic identity, and the "belly shirt" an act of resistance against patriarchal society's narrow views of female sexuality.
Both were regarded as valid forms of self-expression.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Third wave of feminism s. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Variants general. Variants religious. By country. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. Further information: First-wave feminism , Second-wave feminism , Feminist sex wars , and Fourth-wave feminism. Main article: Riot grrrl. Main article: Clarence Thomas Supreme Court nomination.
Main article: Reproductive rights. The women decided they wanted to start a 'girl riot' against a society they felt offered no validation of women's experiences. And thus the Riot Grrrl movement was born. Joan McDermott, and Christina M. Gould wrote in that third-wave feminism offered five primary focuses: 1 Responsible choice grounded in dialogue; 2 respect and appreciation for experiences and dynamic knowledge; 3 an understanding of "the personal is political" that incorporates both the idea that personal experiences have roots in structural problems and the idea that responsible, individuated personal action has social consequences; 4 use of personal narratives in both theorizing and political activism; 5 political activism as local, with global connections and consequences.
Archived PDF from the original on Retrieved Postfeminism s and the Arrival of the Fourth Wave. Palgrave Macmillan. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 2 June New York Public Library. Archived from the original on 3 April Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press. Sex wars: sexual dissent and political culture. New York: Routledge.
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Women, class, and the feminist imagination: a socialist-feminist reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Gerhard, Jane F. Desiring revolution: second-wave feminism and the rewriting of American sexual thought, to New York: Columbia University Press. Leidholdt, Dorchen ; Raymond, Janice G The Sexual liberals and the attack on feminism. New York: Pergamon Press. Vance, Carole S. Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality. Thorsons Publishers. The F Word: Feminism in Jeopardy. Emeryville, CA: Seal Press.
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Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories. London and New York: Routledge, p. The Riot Grrrl Collection. International Feminist Journal of Politics. Archived from the original on March 23, Retrieved March 21, Archived from the original on May 25, Retrieved May 25, New York: Anchor Books.
Toward A Feminist Theory of the State. Harvard University Press. London: Ballantine Books. New York: Crown Publishing Group. Women's Studies. Pierre International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education.
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